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Oddbods est une série télévisée d’animation singapourienne créée par Richard Thomas et par le studio One Animation en 2014, constituée d’épisodes présentatifs et de 60 épisodes, diffusée dès le 31 décembre 2015 sur Télétoon+.

Oddbods est une série d’animation créé en 2014 par le studio One Animation basé à Singapour.

A Oddsville vivent des créatures vêtus de fourrures, il s’agit des Oddbods. Aux comportements variants et aux différentes couleurs, ils se mettent dans des situations qui font tout tourné á la dérive.

La série met en scène sept personnages dont Zee le somnolent et Fuse le colérique.

La saison 2 comportent 60 épisodes . Note : Les épisodes présentatifs n’ont pas de titre, voici les autres épisodes :

Selon Trudi Hayward, d’ITVS GE, les Oddbods ressemblent á des personnages emblématiques tels que Tom et Jerry.

Milling cutter

Milling cutters are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centres to perform milling operations (and occasionally in other machine tools). They remove material by their movement within the machine (e.g., a ball nose mill) or directly from the cutter’s shape (e.g., a form tool such as a hobbing cutter).

Milling cutters come in several shapes and many sizes. There is also a choice of coatings, as well as rake angle and number of cutting surfaces.

End mills (middle row in image) are those tools which have cutting teeth at one end, as well as on the sides. The words end mill are generally used to refer to flat bottomed cutters, but also include rounded cutters (referred to as ball nosed) and radiused cutters (referred to as bull nose, or torus). They are usually made from high speed steel or cemented carbide, and have one or more flutes. They are the most common tool used in a vertical mill.

Roughing end mills quickly remove large amounts of material. This kind of end mill utilizes a wavy tooth form cut on the periphery. These wavy teeth form many successive cutting edges producing many small chips, resulting in a relatively rough surface finish. During cutting, multiple teeth are in contact with the workpiece reducing chatter and vibration. Rapid stock removal with heavy milling cuts is sometimes called hogging. Roughing end mills are also sometimes known as ripping cutters.

Ball nose cutters or ball end mills (lower row in image) are similar to slot drills, but the end of the cutters are hemispherical. They are ideal for machining 3-dimensional contoured shapes in machining centres, for example in moulds and dies. They are sometimes called ball mills in shop-floor slang, despite the fact that that term also has another meaning. They are also used to add a radius between perpendicular faces to reduce stress concentrations.

There is also a term bull nose cutter, which refers to a cutter having a corner radius that is fairly large, although less than the spherical radius (half the cutter diameter) of a ball mill; for example, a 20-mm diameter cutter with a 2-mm radius corner. This usage is analogous to the term bull nose center referring to lathe centers with truncated cones; in both cases, the silhouette is essentially a rectangle with its corners truncated (by either a chamfer or radius Don).

Slab mills are used either by themselves or in gang milling operations on manual horizontal or universal milling machines to machine large broad surfaces quickly. They have been superseded by the use of cemented carbide-tipped face mills which are then used in vertical mills or machining centres.

The side-and-face cutter is designed with cutting teeth on its side as well as its circumference. They are made in varying diameters and widths depending on the application. The teeth on the side allow the cutter to make unbalanced cuts (cutting on one side only) without deflecting the cutter as would happen with a slitting saw or slot cutter (no side teeth).

Cutters of this form factor were the earliest milling cutters developed. From the 1810s to at least the 1880s they were the most common form of milling cutter, whereas today that distinction probably goes to end mills.

There are 8 cutters (excluding the rare half sizes) that will cut gears from 12 teeth through to a rack (infinite diameter).

These cutters are a type of form tool and are used in hobbing machines to generate gears. A cross section of the cutter’s tooth will generate the required shape on the workpiece, once set to the appropriate conditions (blank size). A hobbing machine is a specialised milling machine.

Whereas a hob engages the work much as a mating gear would (and cuts the blank progressively until it reaches final shape), a thread milling cutter operates much like an endmill, traveling around the work in a helical interpolation.

A face mill is a cutter designed for facing as opposed to e.g., creating a pocket (end mills). The cutting edges of face mills are always located along its sides. As such it must always cut in a horizontal direction at a given depth coming from outside the stock. Multiple teeth distribute the chip load, and since the teeth are normally disposable carbide inserts, this combination allows for very large and efficient face milling.

A fly cutter is composed of a body into which one or two tool bits are inserted. As the entire unit rotates, the tool bits take broad, shallow facing cuts. Fly cutters are analogous to face mills in that their purpose is face milling and their individual cutters are replaceable. Face mills are more ideal in various respects (e.g., rigidity, indexability of inserts without disturbing effective cutter diameter or tool length offset, depth-of-cut capability), but tend to be expensive, whereas fly cutters are very inexpensive.

Most fly cutters simply have a cylindrical center body that holds one tool bit. It is usually a standard left-hand turning tool that is held at an angle of 30 to 60 degrees. Fly cutters with two tool bits have no „official“ name but are often called double fly cutters, double-end fly cutters, or fly bars. The latter name reflects that they often take the form of a bar of steel with a tool bit fastened on each end. Often these bits will be mounted at right angles to the bar’s main axis, and the cutting geometry is supplied by using a standard right-hand turning tool.

Regular fly cutters (one tool bit, swept diameter usually less than 100 mm) are widely sold in machinists‘ tooling catalogs. Fly bars are rarely sold commercially; they are usually made by the user. Fly bars are perhaps a bit more dangerous to use than endmills and regular fly cutters because of their larger swing. As one machinist put it, running a fly bar is like „running a lawn mower without the deck“, that is, the exposed swinging cutter is a rather large opportunity to take in nearby hand tools, rags, fingers, and so on. However, given that a machinist can never be careless with impunity around rotating cutters or workpieces, this just means using the same care as always except with slightly higher stakes. Well-made fly bars in conscientious hands give years of trouble-free, cost-effective service for the facing off of large polygonal workpieces such as die/mold blocks.

Woodruff cutters are used to cut the keyway for a woodruff key.

Hollow milling cutters, more often called simply hollow mills, are essentially „inside-out endmills“. They are shaped like a piece of pipe (but with thicker walls), with their cutting edges on the inside surface. They are used on turret lathes and screw machines as an alternative to turning with a box tool, or on milling machines or drill presses to finish a cylindrical boss (such as a trunnion).

A dovetail cutter is an endmill whose form leaves behind a dovetail slot, such as often forms the ways of a machine tool.

A shell mill is any of various milling cutters (typically a face mill or endmill) whose construction takes a modular form, with the shank (arbor) made separately from the body of the cutter, which is called a „shell“ and attaches to the shank/arbor via any of several standardized joining methods.

This modular style of construction is appropriate for large milling cutters for about the same reason that large diesel engines use separate pieces for each cylinder and head whereas a smaller engine would use one integrated casting. Two reasons are that (1) for the maker it is more practical (and thus less expensive) to make the individual pieces as separate endeavors than to machine all their features in relation to each other while the whole unit is integrated (which would require a larger machine tool work envelope); and (2) the user can change some pieces while keeping other pieces the same (rather than changing the whole unit). One arbor (at a hypothetical price of USD100) can serve for various shells at different times. Thus 5 different milling cutters may require only USD100 worth of arbor cost, rather than USD500, as long as the workflow of the shop does not require them all to be set up simultaneously. It is also possible that a crashed tool scraps only the shell rather than both the shell and arbor. This would be like crashing a „regular“ endmill and being able to reuse the shank rather than losing it along with the flutes.

Most shell mills made today use indexable inserts for the cutting edges—thus shank, body, and cutting edges are all modular components.

There are several common standardized methods of mounting shell mills to their arbors. They overlap somewhat (not entirely) with the analogous joining of lathe chucks to the spindle nose.

The most common type of joint between shell and arbor involves a fairly large cylindrical feature at center (to locate the shell concentric to the arbor) and two driving lugs or tangs that drive the shell with a positive engagement (like a dog clutch). Within the central cylindrical area, one or several socket head cap screws fasten the shell to the arbor.

Another type of shell fastening is simply a large-diameter fine thread. The shell then screws onto the arbor just as old-style lathe chuck backplates screw onto the lathe’s spindle nose. This method is commonly used on the 2″ or 3″ boring heads used on knee mills. As with the threaded-spindle-nose lathe chucks, this style of mounting requires that the cutter only take cuts in one rotary direction. Usually (i.e., with right-hand helix orientation) this means only M03, never M04, or in pre-CNC terminology, „only forward, never reverse“. One could use a left-hand thread if one needed a mode of use involving the opposite directions (i.e., only M04, never M03).

Although there are many different types of milling cutter, understanding chip formation is fundamental to the use of any of them. As the milling cutter rotates, the material to be cut is fed into it, and each tooth of the cutter cuts away a small chip of material. Achieving the correct size of chip is of critical importance. The size of this chip depends on several variables.

The machinist needs three values: S, F and Depth when deciding how to cut a new material with a new tool. However, he will probably be given values of Vc and Fz from the tool manufacturer. S and F can be calculated from them:

A milling cutter can cut in two directions, sometimes known as conventional or up and climb or down.

Cutter location is the topic of where to locate the cutter in order to achieve the desired contour (geometry) of the workpiece, given that the cutter’s size is non-zero. The most common example is cutter radius compensation (CRC) for endmills, where the centerline of the tool will be offset from the target position by a vector whose distance is equal to the cutter’s radius and whose direction is governed by the left/right, climb/conventional, up/down distinction. In most implementations of G-code, it is G40 through G42 that control CRC (G40 cancel, G41 left/climb, G42 right/conventional). The radius values for each tool are entered into the offset register(s) by the CNC operator or machinist, who then tweaks them during production in order to keep the finished sizes within tolerance. Cutter location for 3D contouring in 3-, 4-, or 5-axis milling with a ball-endmill is handled readily by CAM software rather than manual programming. Typically the CAM vector output is postprocessed into G-code by a postprocessor program that is tailored to the particular CNC control model. Some late-model CNC controls accept the vector output directly, and do the translation to servo inputs themselves, internally.

Another important quality of the milling cutter to consider is its ability to deal with the swarf generated by the cutting process. If the swarf is not removed as fast as it is produced, the flutes will clog and prevent the tool cutting efficiently, causing vibration, tool wear and overheating. Several factors affect swarf removal, including the depth and angle of the flutes, the size and shape of the chips, the flow of coolant, and the surrounding material. It may be difficult to predict, but a good machinist will watch out for swarf build up, and adjust the milling conditions if it is observed.

Selecting a milling cutter is not a simple task. There are many variables, opinions and lore to consider, but essentially the machinist is trying to choose a tool which will cut the material to the required specification for the least cost. The cost of the job is a combination of the price of the tool, the time taken by the milling machine, and the time taken by the machinist. Often, for jobs of a large number of parts, and days of machining time, the cost of the tool is lowest of the three costs.

The history of milling cutters is intimately bound up with that of milling machines. Milling evolved from rotary filing, so there is a continuum of development between the earliest milling cutters known, such as that of Jacques de Vaucanson from about the 1760s or 1770s, through the cutters of the milling pioneers of the 1810s through 1850s (Whitney, North, Johnson, Nasmyth, and others), to the cutters developed by Joseph R. Brown of Brown & Sharpe in the 1860s, which were regarded as a break from the past for their large step forward in tooth coarseness and for the geometry that could take successive sharpenings without losing the clearance (rake, side rake, and so on). De Vries (1910) reported, „This revolution in the science of milling cutters took place in the States about the year 1870, and became generally known in Europe during the Exhibition in Vienna in 1873. However strange it may seem now that this type of cutter has been universally adopted and its undeniable superiority to the old European type is no longer doubted, it was regarded very distrustfully and European experts were very reserved in expressing their judgment. Even we ourselves can remember that after the coarse pitched cutter had been introduced, certain very clever and otherwise shrewd experts and engineers regarded the new cutting tool with many a shake of the head. When[,] however, the Worlds Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876, exhibited to European experts a universal and many-sided application of the coarse pitched milling cutter which exceeded even the most sanguine expectations, the most far-seeing engineers were then convinced of the immense advantages which the application of the new type opened up for the metalworking industry, and from that time onwards the American type advanced, slowly at first, but later on with rapid strides“.

Woodbury provides citations of patents for various advances in milling cutter design, including irregular spacing of teeth (1867), forms of inserted teeth (1872), spiral groove for breaking up the cut (1881), and others. He also provides a citation on how the introduction of vertical mills brought about wider use of the endmill and fly cutter types.

Scientific study by Holz and De Leeuw of the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company made the teeth even coarser and did for milling cutters what F.W. Taylor had done for single-point cutters with his famous scientific cutting studies.

The Voice Kids (Netherlands TV series)

The Voice Kids was a Dutch television program produced by Talpa Productions and is broadcast on RTL 4. It is based on The Voice of Holland. Participation is only open to children between the ages of six and fourteen years.

The show consists of four phases: production audition, Blind Audition, The Battles and the final. The production auditions are not filmed here and only the good singers are selected. When Idols and Popstars X Factor they then audition for the judges, but with The Voice Kids they do a blind audition. Which is similar to the theater rounds out the previously mentioned talent shows. During the blind auditions to choose the three judges / coaches singers based on musicality and voice. Each candidate will have the opportunity about a minute to sing a song of your choice. As one of the judges / coaches decide to place the artist in his or her team, he or she must own „I Want You“ button again. When two or more jurors an artist in his or her team to have, the artist may choose with which coach he or she wants to.

When all the candidates have done their number, will the coaches with their artists to the next round. These are „The Battles“. Each coach combines three singers together to will battle against each other together to sing a song chosen by the coach. can go only one singer from each battle. Whoever it is, decides the „Dream Team“ in addition to the coach consists of one person. The act that goes directly go to the „Sing Off“. Each team will have five acts in the Sing Off. Since all candidates must sing a song from the audition. Each team only two acts should be chosen to go to the finals.

After The Battles should take six finalists survive in the final. They sing in consultation with their coach a dialed number. The audience at home can then vote on which act to go home. The coaches decide together with the audience at home that act is eliminated; they each have half of the votes. In the second season was only which act was eliminated at home by the public.

In the final stage, there is still one finalist per coach about. The winner will be named using televoting by the public at home to „The Voice Kids“.

The judges / coaches Marco Borsato, Nick & Simon and Angela Groothuizen published in 2011. VanVelzen could not participate in the jury because he would be during the shooting father. [2] Angela Groothuizen was appointed by John de Mol to also participate in the jury during the second season.

On April 17, 2015 said Nick & Simon at RTL Late Night quit familiar with The Voice Kids, because they have many other projects which receive priority.

Angela Groothuizen (2012–2015)

Nick & Simon (2012–2015)

Marco Borsato (2012–)

Ilse DeLange (2016–)

Ali B (2016–)

Winners are in bold, eliminated artists in smaller font. Final contestants listed first.


RabbitEars is a website dedicated to providing information on over-the-air digital television in the United States, its territories and protectorates, and border areas of Canada and Mexico. Aside from merely listing network affiliations and technical data, notations of stations carrying Descriptive Video Service, TVGOS, UpdateTV, Sezmi, Mobile DTV, and MediaFLO are also now covered on the site. RabbitEars also maintains a spreadsheet of current television stations.

RabbitEars.Info has been cited by The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Columbus Dispatch, and the Gotham Gazette for news stories, the Electric Pi Journal, CEOutlook, Sony’s eSupport, and Crutchfield websites for additional technical information, and WCCB-TV, WOLO-TV, and WGHP television stations in relation to the digital television transition.

RabbitEars was developed as a replacement for 100000watts.com, which was a website started around 1998 by Chip Kelley. 100000watts started as a listing of every TV station in the US and grew in scope to eventually included AM and FM radio information as well. However, all information on that site, including technical data from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), was hand-entered, and ultimately Kelley no longer had the time to dedicate to the website. Planning to shut the site down, Clear Channel/M Street Publications stepped in and purchased it in late 2002, after which it became subscription-only. It was at that time that Trip Ericson decided to develop a replacement.

After the digital television transition started in 2008, RabbitEars began tracking digital subchannels, Digital Transition Reports, and Analog Termination Requests made to the FCC. These pages were attached to an incomplete design that Ericson had begun to implement in 2004, but that had never been finished due to lack of coding knowledge. As the transition related pages in particular received attention, corrections were sent to add to and correct the incomplete data that was kept on the rest of the site, and a notice was posted asking for additional assistance. On March 14, 2008, Bruce Myers joined the effort by creating an updated website design, and on April 14, 2008 RabbitEars launched in its current form. Because of these circumstances, while the web address was registered in 2004, the 2008 date is considered to be the beginning of the organization.

RabbitEars maintains a spreadsheet of DTV channels that includes information about stations such as their locations, call signs, network affiliations, channel, ERP, HAAT, and more for full-service DTV stations. The spreadsheet was originally hosted on AVSForum by Mike Mahan, who is better known as „Falcon_77“, and was integrated into the RabbitEars project on July 29, 2008.

RabbitEars tracks stations that use Descriptive Video Service, TVGOS, UpdateTV, Mobile TV, Sezmi, and individual datacasts provided by local television stations in addition to providing lists of television station ownership, network affiliations, and some other miscellaneous information. It covered the digital television transition extensively, and maintains a history of the transition. Also provided is continuing documentation of stations requesting different channels, as well as stations having problems with VHF transmission.

At the end of October 2009, the site added listings for Qualcomm’s MediaFLO service, which has since gone defunct. In December 2009, the site also added listings for high powered transmitters Echostar would be using to launch its own mobile video service. It is believed that the high-powered transmitters MediaFLO and Echostar use could result in overloading of preamplifiers used to boost television signals, and that these lists could help mitigate those concerns.

The RabbitEars Area Designation System (READS) Ranks were put together in 2008 in order to provide for a market ranking system without utilizing the proprietary Designated Market Area data, which is a registered service mark of Nielsen Media Research. The READS Ranks are based solely on OTA signal coverage of American channels and do not take any demographic data into account. Also, for that reason, border Canadian markets, such as Toronto and Montreal (Canada’s top markets), are included in the list, but rank close to the bottom of the list; most other Canadian markets, such as Edmonton, are not included, as American channels are not available over-the-air.

The READS list has been made available for use by anyone who wants to use them, with the only condition being that the ranks are not modified and still listed with the name „READS“.

Парнох, Яков Соломонович

Яков Соломонович Парнох




Российская империя Российская империя

5 мая 1912(1912-05-05)


Соломон Парнох

А. А. Идельсон
А. И. Левенсон

София, Валентин, Елизавета, Алиса

Почётный гражданин Таганрога

Яков Соломонович Парнох (1847, Таганрог — 5 мая 1912, Таганрог) — провизор, владелец аптеки, член городской Думы г. Таганрога, почётный гражданин Таганрога.

Яков Соломонович Парнох (Парнух) родился в Таганроге в 1847 году. Отец — Залман Парнох, учитель, моэль, многие годы прослуживший старостой Таганрогской синагоги. Согласно семейному преданию, предки Якова Соломоновича Парноха в XV веке после изгнания евреев из Испании бежали на восток и в середине XIX века осели в Таганроге.

Учился в Таганрогской мужской гимназии. Закончил Киевский университет, выдержав экзамен на звание провизора.

Работал в Таганроге управляющим в аптеке Моисея Штримера (ул. Петровская, 33 в старой нумерации, на сегодняшний день — Петровская, 61), прослужив в этой должности 28 лет, до приобретения собственной аптеки.

В 1884 году[источник не указан 1094 дня] женился на Александре Абрамовне Идельсон, выпускнице 7-го выпуска Высших женских врачебных курсов при петербургской Императорской медико-хирургической академии. В этом браке родилось трое детей: София (1885), Валентин и Елизавета (1891, близнецы).

В конце 1880-х годов Яков Парнох приобрел дом по адресу ул. Николаевская, 28 (ныне — ул. Фрунзе, 26).

В апреле 1895 года Парноха постигла трагедия: умерла жена Александра Абрамовна, оставив его с тремя малолетними детьми.

В 1895 году Яков Парнох купил в Ростове аптеку и назначил в ней управляющим своего брата, Исая Соломоновича Парноха.

Собственную аптеку в Таганроге купил 1 марта 1896 года у провизора Дзиминского. Находилась эта аптека в доме на углу Иерусалимской улицы и Итальянского переулка, ныне — Александровская, 62. Обзаведясь собственной аптекой в Таганроге, ростовскую продал в начале 1899 года.

После смерти жены Яков Парнох становится в Таганроге общественно значимой фигурой: участвует в различных начинаниях и благотворительных акциях, выбирается в попечительский совет и становится казначеем приюта для младенцев-сирот Мариинского общества «Ясли», членом поверочной комиссии таганрогского управления Российского общества Красного Креста, участвует в деятельности Общества призрения неимущих и Обществ взаимного кредита.

В 1900 году стал потомственным почётным гражданином Таганрога.

Повторно Яков Соломонович Парнох женился 4 августа 1900 года. Его женой и мачехой троих детей стала Александра Иосифовна Левенсон, родом из Митавы, дочь учителя, сама имевшая диплом «частной начальной учительницы». В 1903 г. у них родилась дочь Алиса.

В 1902 году семья перебралась в квартиру, находившуюся в том же доме, где располагалась аптека Парноха, на углу Иерусалимской улицы и Итальянского переулка.

Умер 5 мая 1912 года в Таганроге от диабета, осложненного сердечной недостаточностью.

Colin Dexter

Œuvres principales

Série Inspecteur Morse

Norman Colin Dexter, né le à Stamford, dans le comté anglais du Lincolnshire et plus connu sous son nom de plume Colin Dexter, est un écrivain britannique, auteur de roman policier.

Il fait des études supérieures au Christ’s College de l’Université de Cambridge dont il sort diplômé en 1953. Il commence alors une carrière d’enseignant de grec et de latin dans des établissements des Midlands. Affecté par de graves problèmes de surdité (comme le personnage de son roman Les Silences du professeur), il trouve, en 1966, une place au Centre des examens de l’Université d’Oxford, où il s’installe définitivement.

À l’instar de son créateur, le personnage de l’inspecteur principal Morse, du CID (Criminal Investigation Departement), mélomane et grand amateur de bière devant l’Éternel, est passionnément attaché à sa ville d’adoption. L’inspecteur Morse, assisté par le sergent Lewis, est le héros d’une série de treize romans et un recueil de nouvelles. Selon Claude Mesplède, « les romans de Colin Dexter mettent en scène les procédures, les états d’âme et les rapports ambigus que l’inspecteur Morse entretient avec son entourage et surtout avec lui-même. […] Ce qu’on a qualifié de « nouveau roman anglais » est en fait un whodunit mixé d’un peu de procédure (policière) et de psychologie ».

Le personnage de l’Inspecteur Morse est devenu le héros d’une série télévisée britannique à succès, dans laquelle chaque épisode voit apparaître fugacement Colin Dexter, à la façon d’un Alfred Hitchcock.

Siegfried & Roy

Siegfried & Roy are a German-American duo of former contemporary magicians and entertainers who became known for their appearances with white lions and white tigers.

From 1990 until Roy’s tiger injury ended their stage careers on October 3, 2003, the duo formed Siegfried & Roy at the Mirage Resort and Casino, which was regarded as the most-visited show in Las Vegas, Nevada. From 2004 to 2005, Siegfried and Roy were executive producers of Father of the Pride.

Siegfried Fischbacher (born June 13, 1939) and Roy Horn (born Uwe Ludwig Horn on October 3, 1944) were born and raised in Germany. They migrated to the United States and became naturalized citizens.

In 2004, their act became the basis for the short-lived television series Father of the Pride. Right before its release, the series was almost cancelled until Siegfried & Roy urged NBC to continue production after Roy’s injury from October 2003 improved.

On October 3, 2003, during a show at the Mirage, Roy Horn was bitten on the neck by a 7-year-old male white tiger named Montecore. Just prior to the attack, Horn appeared to have convulsed in a seizure-like manner[citation needed] that triggered a startled reaction from Montecore, allegedly prompting the white tiger to try and move Horn to safety. Crew members separated Horn from the tiger and rushed him to the only Level I trauma center in Nevada, University Medical Center. Horn was critically injured and sustained severe blood loss. While being taken to the hospital, Horn said, „Montecore is a great cat. Make sure no harm comes to Montecore.“

As of 2006, Horn was talking and walking (with assistance from Fischbacher). On Pat O’Brien’s television news program The Insider, he commented about his daily rehabilitation, „They are slave drivers over there. You’d think they are the KGB from Russia.“

The injury to Roy Horn prompted the Mirage to close the show, and 267 cast and crew members were laid off.

In February 2009, the duo staged a final appearance with Montecore as a benefit for the Lou Ruvo Brain Institute. This performance was recorded for broadcast on ABC television’s 20/20 program.

On April 23, 2010, Siegfried & Roy retired from show business. „The last time we closed, we didn’t have a lot of warning,“ said longtime manager Bernie Yuman. „This is farewell. This is the dot at the end of the sentence.“

According to a press release , on March 19, 2014, Montecore, the tiger who injured Roy Horn, died at age 17 after a short illness.

Ignacio Álvarez Thomas

José Ignacio Álvarez Thomas (February 15, 1787 – July 19, 1857) was a South American military commander and politician of the early 19th century.

Álvarez Thomas was born in Arequipa, Peru, and his family lived for some time in Lima. When his father, who was in Spanish service, was called back to Madrid in 1797, they travelled via Buenos Aires. The family stayed there while his father continued the voyage alone, and Álvarez joined the army in 1799. Subsequently, he got heavily involved in the independence war in Argentina.

In the war against the British in 1806/07, he was wounded and captured, and released only after the withdrawal of the British troops. Under Carlos María de Alvear, he fought as a Colonel at Montevideo, where he was awarded a medal. However, soon after he openly opposed the politics of de Alvear’s government, and his insurrection caused the resignation of the latter and resulted in a new election of a Supreme Director in the Constituting General Assembly, where he was designated interim Supreme Director from April 20, 1815 to April 16, 1816 in place of the elected José Rondeau, who was absent on a military campaign in Peru. Álvarez was sworn in on May 6 but had to resign a year later after some military failures. When the Constituting General Assembly was dissolved in 1820, he was, as a still-influential member of the former leadership, sent to prison, but released after 19 days. Subsequently, his political influence was greatly diminished.

In 1825, he was named ambassador in Peru, and in October also named ambassador to Chile. After his return to Buenos Aires, he was exiled and also spent some time in prison for his opposition against the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas. He emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, from where he tried to mount an insurrection against Rosas in 1840. In 1846, he fled first the Chile and then Peru, before returning to Buenos Aires after the fall of Rosas government in 1852.

He died likely of tuberculosis on July 19, 1857 in Buenos Aires in Argentina at the age of 70.


Die Euthanasie-Prozesse umfassen Prozesse gegen die Hauptschuldigen und Mittäter der Euthanasiemorde zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus.

Bereits 1947 begann vor dem Schwurgericht Freiburg der erste Grafeneck-Prozess. Angeklagt waren Ludwig Sprauer, der oberste Medizinalbeamte im Karlsruher Innenministerium, und Arthur Schreck, Direktor der Pflegeanstalten Rastatt, Illenau und Wiesloch, wegen Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit und Beihilfe zum Mord an Anstaltsinsassen. Am 16. November 1948 sprach des Gericht die beiden Angeklagten schuldig und verurteilte sie zu lebenslangem Zuchthaus.

Nach jahrelangen Vorbereitungen begann der Tübinger Grafeneck-Prozess im Sommer 1949 auf Schloss Hohentübingen. Acht Personen wurden angeklagt, da sie an der Ermordung von 10.654 getöteten Patienten in der Tötungsanstalt Schloss Grafeneck beteiligt waren. Die acht Angeklagten vor Gericht waren Otto Mauthe, Max Eyrich (ehemaliger Landsjugendarzt), Alfons Stegmann (ehemaliger Arzt in der Heilanstalt Zwiefalten), Martha Fauser (damals leitende Ärztin in Zwiefalten), Jakob Wöger und Hermann Holzschuh (Beamte des Standesamtes), Heinrich Unverhau (ehemaliger Krankenpfleger) und Krankenschwester Maria Appinger.

Vom 9. Dezember 1946 bis zum 20. August 1947 fand der Nürnberger Ärzteprozess im Nürnberger Justizpalast vor einem amerikanischen Militärgericht statt. Neben 20 KZ-Ärzten wurde unter anderem auch Euthanasiebevollmächtigter und Begleitarzt Hitlers, Karl Brandt, angeklagt. Er erhielt die Todesstrafe und wurde am 2. Juni 1948 hingerichtet.

Vor dem Landgericht Frankfurt gab es zwischen 1946 und 1948 insgesamt vier Prozesse, die zur Verurteilung von Tatbeteiligten der NS-Euthanasie dienten. Unter den 44 Angeklagten waren Ärzte, Schwestern und Pfleger aus den Anstalten Hadamar, Eichberg und Kalmenhof, die an den Ermordungen von Patienten beteiligt waren. Sechs Todesurteile wurden gefällt und 19 Haftstrafen verhängt. Letztendlich wurden die Todesurteile nicht vollstreckt und nur zwei Verurteilte wurden nicht begnadigt.

Am 16. Juni 1947 wurde der Prozess durch den Landgerichtspräsident Martin Fischer, den Landgerichtsdirektor Rudolf Fischer und der Amtsgerichtsrätin Elfriede Thaler eröffnet. Zwischen dem 16. Juni und dem 25. Juni wurden die Angeklagten und die Zeugen in einer öffentlichen Sitzung vernommen. Durch die Medien fand der Prozess in der Öffentlichkeit große Aufmerksamkeit. Die Sächsische Zeitung berichtete täglich über den Verlauf des Prozesses.

Im Hartheim Hauptprozess wurde gegen 61 Personen ermittelt, zu denen auch die ärztlichen Leiter Georg Renno und Rudolf Lonauer gehörten. Die Tabelle zeigt die Beschuldigten Personen nach Funktion und Geschlecht:

Das Verfahren von 13 Beschuldigten wurde eingestellt, bei 22 Beschuldigten wurde es abgebrochen aufgrund der Nichtauffindbarkeit des Täters. Bei sieben schon gestorbenen Personen wurde das Verfahren eingestellt, zwei Angeklagte erhielten eine Haftstrafe. 13 Verfahren der Beschuldigten sind in ein anderes ausgeschieden worden und bei den restlichen drei ist der Ausgang des Verfahrens bis heute unbekannt.

Am 7. Juli 1947 wurde das Urteil verkündet. Die Staatsanwaltschaft hatte zwar elfmal die Todesstrafe beantragt, jedoch wurde sie nur viermal ausgesprochen. Besonders bei den Krankenschwestern fielen die Urteile meist geringer aus als gefordert wurde. Im März 1948 wurden die Todesurteile in Dresden vollstreckt. Die hohen Haftstrafen wurden im Jahr 1956 im Zuge einer Amnestie erlassen.

Vor dem Außensenat Klagenfurt des Volksgerichts Graz wurde der österreichische Psychiater und Primararzt Franz Niedermoser im Klagenfurter Euthanasie- Prozess angeklagt. Er wurde für schuldig erklärt, in mindestens 400 Fällen die Tötung von Patienten und Patientinnen angeordnet zu haben. Dazu kamen die veranlassten Misshandlungen von Patienten und Patientinnen, die ohne jegliche Rücksicht der Menschenwürde verliefen und oft zum Tode der Opfer führten. Niedermoser wurde am 4. April 1946 zum Tode durch den Strang verurteilt und sein Besitz enteignet. Am 24. Oktober 1946 wurde im Landesgericht Klagenfurt das Urteil vollstreckt. Der Oberpfleger Eduard Brandstätter, die Oberschwester Antonie Pachner und die Oberpflegerin Otillie Schellander, die als Mitangeklagte galten, wurden ebenfalls zum Tode durch den Strang verurteilt. Am Tag seiner Urteilsverkündung verübte Brandstätter Suizid. Pachner und Schellander wurden schließlich zu langjährigen Haftstrafen begnadigt. Am 8. April 1951 verstarb Antonie Pachner im Gefängnis, Schellander wurde im Rahmen einer neuerlichen Begnadigung am 1. April 1955 bedingt aus der Haft entlassen. Die Krankenschwestern Paula Tomasch, Julie Wolf, Ilse Printschler und Maria Cholawa sowie ein Oberpfleger, die alle nachweislich an den Foltern beteiligt waren, wurden zu langjährigen Haftstrafen, teilweise in Kombination mit Vermögensverfall, verurteilt.


La Grande-Percée est un projet urbain de modernisation du centre historique de Strasbourg, entre 1910 et 1960. Elle correspond aux rues actuelles du 22 Novembre, des Francs-Bourgeois, de la Division Leclerc, et de la 1re Armée.

La Grande-Percée se situe au cœur historique de Strasbourg, sur la Grande Île, entre le Quai Desaix et le Quai Saint-Thomas. Il convient de noter toutefois que la rue de la 1re Armée se situe en dehors de la Grande Île et continue jusqu’au Quai Fustel de Coulanges.

Elle s’étend sur environs 1400 mètres. Son aspect sinueux est inspiré des travaux de l’architecte autrichien Camillo Sitte.

En 1870, la densité du centre-ville de Strasbourg est très importante. Les rues sont étroites et tortueuses. Le quartier ressemble en de nombreux points à la Petite France, située à l’ouest de la ville.

Selon Laurence Perry, directrice des Archives municipales de Strasbourg, la « municipalité strasbourgeoise se préoccupe de l’habitat insalubre dès la promulgation de la loi du 13 avril 1850 qui instaure les commissions municipales de logements insalubres. » À cette époque, la ville est asphyxiée dans l’enceinte de ses remparts, et se caractérise par des logements peu éclairés, humides, malpropres, exigus, datant pour la plupart du Moyen-âge ou de la Renaissance.

Après la victoire prussienne, la loi de 1850 reste en vigueur en Alsace, et en 1897, la municipalité crée une commission des logements dotée de larges pouvoirs, pouvant par exemple obliger des travaux de rénovation. Les logements et les conditions de vie des habitants ont alors des conséquences sur la santé, favorisant par exemple la tuberculose : le centre-ville est qualité de mortifère.

En 1900, pour justifier sa politique, la ville édicte des règles régissant les logements :

En 1904, ces règles sont durcies : le Kreisgesundheitrat (Commission départementale pour la santé) déconseille l’utilisation des pièces aveugles, impose une hauteur de plafond de 2,20 m pour une chambre d’adulte, et interdit la condamnation des fenêtres en hiver (pratique courante pour économiser du chauffage).

Face à un tel état d’insalubrité, le maire Otto Back crée en 1899 le Sanierungsfond (Commission d’assainissement) dont le but est de racheter et détruire les bâtiments insalubres. La commission des logements est dotée de moyens financiers plus importants.

Un deuxième élément justifie la mise en place des travaux de la Grande-Percée : l’étroitesse des rues médiévales complique les communications entre la nouvelle gare centrale et le quartier allemand de la Neustadt. Cette artère devait également servir de vitrine pour le savoir-faire allemand dans la capitale du Reichsland.

Sur proposition du maire Rudolf Schwander, la Grande-Percée est acceptée par le conseil municipal en 1907. Les travaux sont lancés en 1910, pour un budget de 12 millions de mark.

Les plans de la plupart des bâtiments sont dessinés dès 1914. On note notamment le futur hôtel Excelsior (actuel hôtel Hannong) avec une façade classique, et de nombreux bâtiments très longs, de 4 étages en moyenne, selon les esquisses de Fritz Beblo.

Ainsi, dès 1914 la gare est reliée à la Place Kléber via la Neue-Strasse, renommée en 1918 rue du 22 Novembre, en souvenir de l’entrée des troupes françaises à Strasbourg le 22 novembre 1918. Architecturalement parlant, c’est la plus variée de la Grande-Percée. Six immeubles anciens ont été conservés entre le n°25 et le n°35.

Les démolitions continuent dans les années 1920 et 1930. La rue de la Division Leclerc, construite dans les années 1920, est bordée d’immeubles moins cossus, dessinés par Paul Dochy et Paul Dopff, d’après les plans de Beblo, mais en simplifiés, sans fioritures. Ces logements sont destinés à accueillir des appartements à loyer modéré.

À cette période est construite la rue de la 1re Armée, qui sera très fortement endommagée par les bombardements de la seconde Guerre mondiale. De ce fait, son style est plus proche de celui des années 1950 et 1960, avec de grands bâtiments gris, similaires les uns aux autres. On note un immeuble de 1934 au numéro 26, construit sur les plans de l’architecte Ernest Misbach.

Entre 1886 et 1960, la ligne de Graffenstaden du tramway de Strasbourg emprunte la Grande-Percée entre la place du Corbeau et le quai Louis Pasteur.

L’arrêt Alt Winmärik des lignes B et F du tramway de Strasbourg dessert depuis l’an 2000 l’entrée ouest de la Grande-Percée.

Entre la Place Kléber et la sortie sud de la Grande-Percée, cette dernière est traversée par les rails du tramway A depuis 1994. Depuis 1998, ces rails sont également empruntés par la ligne D.

Deux arrêts sont à recenser : Porte de l’Hôpital et Langstross.

A l’angle de la rue du 22 Novembre et de la place Kléber, se trouve un grand bâtiment construit en 1912 par les architectes Jules Berninger et Gustave Krafft. Sur sa façade se trouvent quatre statues représentant les quatre saisons.

Jusqu’en 1918, il accueille l’enseigne Kaufhaus Modern, devenue Magasin Moderne après la première Guerre mondiale. Le bâtiment est détruit par un incendie en 1920 puis rénové.

Le magasin changera plusieurs fois de nom, devenu Magmod, puis Union pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, à nouveau Magmod, Nouvelles Galeries, et enfin Galeries Lafayette.

De nombreux éléments de décoration intérieure et extérieure en font un bâtiment remarquable de la ville.